By Budi H. Wibowo
During 50 the last year, conflict have snatched victim counted 45 million people. In the year 1994, about 43 million earthling have to evacuate, most is from them forced to leave their residences is caused armed conflict. Although conflict still is especial characteristic of era of after cold war, efforts to discontinue war have reached efficacy of partial in nations like Angola, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Haitian, Mozambique, Namibia, and Nicaragua.
Most of the conflicts take place during old ones and bother social structure, economics of area or state where the conflict take place. Millions of human being reality killed, injure or forced to leave their residence and evacuate to other place. Meanwhile, economics cannot fulfill requirement of political structure and society have to be rebuilt from early. To comprehend term “peace”, starting from three simple principle, that is: (a) peace term will be utilized by many people, although not all, to the target of socials, (b) the target over this social is difficult and complicated possible, but is not mean unattainable, (c) statement that peace mean hardness inexistence, will be considered by statement which is truth.1.
Theory utilized to support statement that peace is a process and can be pushed to through role of institution, hence we will use theory told by Nicole Ball and of Tommy Halevy, assuming that the peace is an process. While theory supporting that peace can be pushed to pass institution entangling, told by John W. Burton. Burton lay open how to create a[n effective institution to finish conflict, one of them [is] to develop conflict resolution procedure which in it there are: (1) effort to develop of facility process, (2) designing involvement of third party, and (3) starting structural change process which needed to eliminate basic causes of conflict.2
Process peace told by Nicole Ball and of Tommy Halevy itself can be divided to become two levels, that is: conflict resolution storey; level, and storey; level peace of building. Conflict resolution aim to come to agreement issues lock to be encounter can end. This level is consist of two step that is negotiation and stop of hostility formally. In this level of international actors have to assist parties conflicting to be able to lessen existing difference, depressing parties conflicting diplomatic, and also give technical aid in have negotiation.
While level peace of building consist of two phase that is, consolidation and transition. Both of this phase aim to strengthen political institution, and also re-developing social and economic structure an state.
But, before century of 19, conception peace more interpret as condition where fight to end in absolute military victory from a state to other state or when one of the parties surrender because various reason. Sometime if conflict which is expanding to be assessed as threat to stronger nations security or stability, an solution will be applied externally and war of itself will be forced to reach final phase.
These days, negotiation more and more used as a means of to terminate wars. Can be taken for example between year 1800 and year 1980, from 60 war of inter-states 2/3 him of terminated with negosiasi.3 But, there’s no process becoming standard in negotiation to terminate a conflict or proposed and happened forthwith – world war of I— in other case of discussion take place during through years before process early in the form of phase drive a bargain to regarding conditions which is specific to be started (war of Vietnam year 1962-1971).
In a few cases, negotiation started almost at the same time with war (Suez) but experience of impasse when both parties conduct preparation for the escalation of conflict (Falklands/Malvinas). But, phase in course of negotiation constantly require to be identify. In every phase, the key decisions have to earn to be reached. Phase process negotiation can identify is:4
1). The Decision to Negotiate: this phase of parties to concerned in conflict study possibility finish their difference through negotiation or can be referred (pre-negotiation). Activity of the negotiation pre can in the form of activity conducted by takers of leader and decision to question do war really need or some sacrifices and also loss which must be suffered to continue war. Other activity can in the form of growth and accepted of source about new information regarding strength, enemy target and motif.
2). Getting The Belligerents to the Table: this phase is phase where all out for leader and diplomats specify time, agenda and place for an meeting. Negotiation to terminate a war can take place in way which different each other and in immeasurable location. For example, specified place for a meeting can in the form of transient building which founded the near by encounter line or can in the form of permanent building in a neutral state. Diplomatic representative can live in a place during meeting take place or they earn to go about from state one to other state.
3). The Decisions Required Break Deadlocks Bargaining: in negotiation to terminate war very rare take place fluently, often also happened where closer all tired consultants of agreement, progressively difficult to protect final agreement. Consultation earn annoyed if war happened to return or if credibility all consultants minimized by governances leaders. One of the parties also can exploit negotiation process to test opponent attitude negotiate him. Most in course of negotiations, there is moment where both parties not wish or cannot continue negotiation process. This impasse have to earn to be solved if war will terminate to through negotiation.
Many expectations which emerge if a approval of tired by peace after existence of signing a approval of peace and agreement of cease-fire. Matter a kind of this seen many as signs that any problems will immediately finish and respect to approval which have reached will yield idea that approval of peace are complete guide up at endless peace. But, practically the idea is not correctness. Very difficult for all involved in parties of conflict to accept pickings approval of peace. Approval of peace only providing framework for terminating of guide and conflict to handle early stage of situation of after conflict. After approval of peace agreed on, discussion still require to be conducted by concerning how decision which there are the in agreement can isn't it and how critical issue which not covered in agreement will be able to be rehashed.
The implementations of limited decision which have agreed on in agreement just peace eat time one or two years. With consideration to the number of problems which must be discussed and length process and also duration required to reach to rehabilitate, reconstruct, and reconciliation, can be estimated that international community have to remain to involve during 10 year, catching up signing of approval of peace. Nature of intensity of involvement will very along with time.
So that can succeed, a peace process need immeasurable involvement of institution in continuous international community and each actor of external play role the specific in course of peace. The International community consist of government bodies of bilateral, Overseas Departmental as Department of Defense and Department of Judgment, multilateral institution like UN, organizational of regional like NATO and ASEAN, member of international community development, and international human right organization. One of the phases in peace of building, that is transition phase, efforts conducted to found a governance owning legitimacy last for governing. Many approvals of peace as in Cambodia, El Salvador, and Mozambique include; cover period of transition that goes on during one or two year and end in general election. While during consolidation phase, process peace continued told problem causing itself conflict. This matters require to be conducted so that a situation which is conducive can be created for solution of conflict in peace in the future.
Become needed the international institutions aid of not merely at the time of negotiation approval of peace, but also in maintaining and isn't it peace. For the implementation approval of peace, involved in parties of conflict have to earn to conduct some matters like disarming weapon and withdraw combat troops, upholding respect to human right, re-returning economics, and others. In executing domestic ability the mentioned limited which for example because of institutional weakness, limitation of human resource and of financial. Therefore need international institution to give that good aid in the form of aid of financial, technical, and political support.
On April 2, 1982, world have been surprised by news that military team of invasive Argentina and occupy archipelago of Falkland, a English country isle in side Atlantic sea south which populate 1.800 people. In Buenos Aires, governmental of Argentina happily; gladly express that claimed a new archipelago region, named by previous of archipelago of Malvinas. On the country in London, governmental of English surprised and feel to be mortified by news. Government of English announce to return the region by possibilities including by hardness. While very strong reaction felt by government of United States, where the dispute can influence overseas policy of him. Because both state have good relation with United States. English is one of the eldest ally of United States and a world power in NATO. While Argentina is most trusted by ally state in Latin America area by United States. passed to Support one of them will destroy with the other. At event United States choose to become mediator [done/conducted] the efforts to prevent and terminate the conflict. Although finally the mediation do not fully walk better, but the efforts succeed to extenuate English attitude, this matter happened when proposal raised by United States concerning a governance of interim to be run by English and of Argentina with United States participation is in it agreed by English.***
1Johan Galtung, ”Violence, Peace and Peace Research”, Journal of Peace Research No. 3, 1969, p. 167-169
2John W. Burton, ”The Procedures of Conflict Resolution”, of Edward E. Azar and John Burton, International Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Sussex: Wheatsheaf, 1986, p. 101
3Paul R. Pillar, ”Negotiating Peace: War Termination as a Bargaining Process”, Princeton University Press, 1983, p. 9-25
4Allan E. Goodman and Sanra Clemens Bogart, ”Making Peace, The United State and Conflict Resolution”, 1992, p. 6-7
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06 February 2008
By Budi H. Wibowo