By Budi H. Wibowo
International political dynamics, especially at period of world war of II until cold war, more influenced by conventional issues and more at trade-offs importance of ideologies between United States of America as capitalist ideology direction Soviet Union which is communist.
During a period of world war of II, when Germany and Japan becomes enemy with, relation Soviet Union and United States of America can be told chummy. That thing is shown with their involvement is assisted by English fight Germany, and also the existence of isn't it between Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill, concerning Europe configuration of after made war in Yalta on February 1945.
But, ad for it is only whereas, when greed of Stalin intending to grab Europe West finally make United States of America performed to release threat in the form of usage of nuclear weapon. The above is true, cold war between United States of America and of Soviet started.
World start to see better future of cold war moment after, marked collapsed him brick up to have Line year 1989 and disband him of Soviet early year 1992, what was later; then followed the by form of Monetary Economic Union and in 1991 Europe passing agreement of Maastricht. Medley of history do not get out of role of America which partake incised important note in a arrangement of world system.
Therefore, United States of America immediately after cold war end, continue to launch his program, like world economic liberalization, democratization, human being basic rights, and issue of non-conventional other, including terrorism.
Global Issue Terrorism
Term "terrorism" put into use by the end of 18 century, especially to show actions hardness of government meant to guarantee adherence of people (Charles Thomas, International Terrorism and Political Crimes, 1975).
This concept, ad for him, enough profit to all perpetrators of state terrorism which because having command of, staying in position control mind system and feeling. Thereby, meaning of the genuine of falling into oblivion, and term "terrorism" applied last especially for the "terrorism of retaliation" by group or individual.
Even, fight to terrorism have time to peep out pros and contra in international organization, like UN as well as in each state which will do not want to ratify into internal code of him, but, most national greet warmness in the form of support.
War fight against global terrorism, have got extraordinary greeting. In diplomacy level, the example, have signed by security council of UN resolution 1368 and 1373, obliging the member of 189 of to terminate all terrorist actions and aid to terrorist, and also bring perpetrator terrorize to be judged.
Collin Powell, Overseas Minister of US, telling more important nothing that than pioneer resolution, terrorist without fund source and protection, finally is equal to facing deadlock. On the contrary, Brian Becker, activist of International Answer (Act Now to End War and Racism) calling upon, "war is not answer, because attack September 11 is not war attack, but have happened escalation in hardness circle".
Ruination of WTC is a hard criticism of discourse of hegemonic which developed in long period, coherent to at the same time repeat that grind, anything its for, have to be discontinued. Herewith, many states, specially third world state isn't it disappointment impressing suing to lame him of systems unsuccessful answer various human problem. Capitalism --brother liberalism twin-- even also follow to challenge is sameness of problem which is being face by mankind.
Thesis of Francis Fukuyama get review in idea dialectic. Capitalism symbiosis with democracy not solely the failure indication of as history of end the, but at the same time reconstruct understanding which during the time expand in global world system.
In many facets, human tragedy --both for falling effect of attack of WTC and effect of unfair global-- will alter many matters. Is not merely re-questioning understanding which have standard overdue before all, but then led mankind look for new form which more can fulfill mankind sense of justice.
In consequence, biggest challenge for Government of US nowadays is not wreak the enragement of emotionally. Besides disagree with character is which during the time claimed by him, rational, that thing nor express character of reflective of accident which is just happened. Besides, US is nowadays given on to enemy which do not have region (territory) but having the character of international.
Indonesia - America
Indonesia in this time stay in danger area or red area/zone from a nation state (state nation) peripatetic weak to unsuccessful nation state, is such as expressed by Robert I. Rotberg (Kompas, 28 March 2002). This statement not groundless and analyses at fact faced of Indonesia in this time. As known that endless crisis have forced is happened.
Commutation of leadership of national in the reality not guarantee up at better change, cause, becoming note that other factor also follow share in succeeding or Indonesia not overcome problem.
Among that problem, like issue of disintegration nation, this matter is shown with conflict in areas which not yet complete; straightening of ambivalent law; eradication of KKN (corruption, collusion, nepotism) which halfheartedly; and effort repair of economics which not yet designated efficacy.
Despitefully, influence of overseas side pressure to policy of Indonesia felt progressively weigh against various area, like politics, economic, commerce, even military.
US as activator motor position to guard area of Trans-Atlantic (North America and Europe West), specially political dimension and military. Then RRC and Japan as locomotive in Asian area of Pacific at economic trade area.
And English as unifier symbol Europe Union, even not use Euro as currency him. When above multi polar which formed, hence question, where position and as what nations expand (Indonesia) which is as well as of amount of him more than states categorize to go forward?
To answer him required instrument as indicator measure him. First, based on level of income per capita. Clear Indonesia still far from standard earnings of world mean, beside debt which is big so. Both, democratization climate which still far from good. This matter is shown still the strength of state domination in all sides; political, economics, human rights, law and military. Third, which more specifics, that his ill defined of overseas political concept of Indonesia. Bebas-Aktif (active-free) as choice model, pursuing Indonesia to conduct strategic alliance with selected nations.
So-Called last, becoming to draw, when related to concept of new order world of ala American. Even proven Mega have got support of Bush junior, specially for project fight to global terrorism, and also good progressively relation him of Indonesia-RRC with his visit, not at moment's notice bring Indonesia at peaceful region. But on the contrary, this matter generate negative prejudice of America "Mega use political style of his father (read: Soekarno)" although assumed strategic in perspective of Indonesia.
Therefore, must be conducted by overseas political model re-interpretation of Indonesia, for the sure of world as for Indonesia attitude and position. And that insufficient even made him of only with UU Pemberatasan Terorisme.
Global grand design what to be design by US, placing nations expand, including Indonesia as supporter component state for importance of him. This matter is parallel with configurations of multi polar. But, frankly visible in a flash of ambigu, because, US more wish model of uni polar.
Ambition become single hegemon, see cold war end. This also can be seen from some events like war of Vietnam, war of Bay (Iraq-US), and last of war of Afghanistan. Domination US in international organization, for example UN so jell, forced security council release the resolution of to fight terrorism.
Intensively war campaign him fight against global terrorism, insisting on each; every state to express his support, even RRC even if, for the benefit of market, finally give bless, that way also Russia, ascertaining rear American, because relation which start good between both. Ad for change and growth that happened, can be said that concept of balance power of which wish to be woke up by natural after cold war of disorientation, because in reality, US become the single unsurpassed strength up this moment until now.
Despitefully, circulating also assumption that, world condition in this time disagree with US obsession, because have gone out from especial principle of US to protect all the importance of national of and maintain US as leader of world.
Warren Christopher in the article of America's Leadership, America's Opportunity (Journal of Foreign Policy, No. 95, Spring 1995) laying open, there is 4 especial principle of overseas politics of US after cold war. First, maintaining global leadership of US in political area, economics and security. Principal this is all important in the effort forming to arrange better new world.
Second, maintaining constructive interaction pattern with other strong state, in Europe area, Asian of Pacific, Mid-East and Latin America, specially for importance of US economics. Third, strengthening international institutions as mechanism is solving of international conflict in peace, and fourth, socializing values democratize to whole world as especial prerequisite of international peace creation.
The program that can be translated as overseas political strategy of US. In wide of meaning, overseas political strategy according to Lovell (1975) is plan from an state to reach importance of national prevented other state actor in reaching for the importance. This matter become relevantly, when emerging nations " traitor", just mention like Iraq and North Korea, opposing each; every policy of US. Not to mention, nations which on the quiet and pragmatic exploit US.
All that, becoming serious consideration for US, for the classification of nations; enemy, semi enemy semi closed friend, or closed friend. When assessment of US, that world constellation in this time more not to the advantage of the future of him as leader of world, hence by degrees but surely, US will launch next action to revolutionize world. Because, US tend to assume to arrange world wanted by have failed, and become a undoubtedly that terrorism issue as correct angle to conduct that.
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19 February 2008
By Budi H. Wibowo